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How to Grow Mushrooms: Optimal Conditions & Techniques

How to Grow Mushrooms: Optimal Conditions & Techniques

Posted by Troy Cosky, Founder FunGuy Grow Supply on 25th Apr 2023

How to Grow Mushrooms

Oyster Mushroom Cultivation Growing and Harvesting Oyster Mushrooms

Mushrooms, with their astonishing diversity and intriguing nature as fungi, have captivated human fascination for millennia, serving as a source of sustenance, medicinal applications, and cultural significance. Gaining a deep understanding of their growth is indispensable for cultivating them, whether for consumption or for scientific inquiries.

The anatomy of mushrooms comprises of two primary components, namely the mycelium, and the fruiting body, which together form their distinct structure. The mycelium is a network of thread-like structures called hyphae that grow underground or within a substrate such as wood or soil. The mycelium is responsible for breaking down nutrients from the substrate and distributing them throughout the fungus. The mushroom cap, or fruiting structure, is the quintessential image of mushrooms and plays a crucial role in the spore production and fungal reproduction process.

Mushrooms require specific environmental conditions to grow, including proper nutrients, humidity, temperature, and light. Cultivating mushrooms involves growing spawn on a substrate, which is then used to inoculate a larger batch of substrate. Following an incubation period, the fruiting bodies will emerge, ready to be harvested for consumption or research purposes.

Overall, understanding the growth process of mushrooms is critical for their cultivation and appreciation. Let's delve into the stages of mushroom growth and how various factors influence their development in the following sections.

Creating Optimal Environmental Conditions for Mushroom Growth


The environment in which mushrooms grow plays a crucial role in their development. The interplay of temperature, humidity, light, and substrate assumes utmost significance in shaping the growth and cultivation of these prized mushrooms. For optimal growth, mushrooms require the right combination of these factors.

Creating Optimal Environmental Conditions

Carefully controlling temperature and moisture are critical factors in successful mushroom cultivation. Most mushrooms grow best in cooler temperatures between 55 and 65 degrees Fahrenheit, with high humidity levels ranging from 80 to 95%. The substrate's moisture content must also be maintained at the correct level, as excess water can lead to bacterial growth and a decrease in mushroom production.

Choosing the Right Substrate for Mushroom Cultivation

The substrate is the medium in which the mycelium grows and provides nutrients to the mushroom. Different mushrooms require different substrates for growth, such as straw or sawdust for oyster mushrooms, and logs for shiitake mushrooms. The substrate's pH level must also be controlled, as a neutral pH of 7 is ideal for most mushrooms.

Understanding Light Requirements for Mushroom Growth

Light is another essential factor in mushroom growth. While some mushrooms require complete darkness, others require light to initiate the fruiting process. Button mushrooms, for example, will only develop fruiting bodies in the presence of light. Therefore, it is essential to understand the light requirements of the specific mushroom being cultivated.

Importance of Monitoring and Regulating Environmental Factors for Mushroom Cultivation

Finally, cultivation of mushrooms requires careful attention to detail. Commercial growers often use specialized equipment and techniques to control environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and lighting, ensuring optimal growth and a consistent crop. Understanding the importance of the growing environment can help cultivate healthy and bountiful mushrooms.

The Growing Process: Spawning, Colonization, and Fruiting


The growing process of mushrooms involves three main stages:

  • Spawning: Mixing mushroom spawn, which is a combination of mycelium and substrate, into a larger batch of substrate.
  • Colonization: The mycelium grows and spreads throughout the substrate, developing and maturing in a process called colonization.
  • Fruiting: When the substrate is completely colonized by the mycelium, the fruiting process commences. The mycelium forms a "pinhead" that develops into the fruiting body - the cap, stem, and gills that we recognize as a mushroom.

In this critical phase, the interplay of temperature, humidity, and light emerges as vital determinants for facilitating the ideal conditions to foster optimal growth.

Different types of mushrooms require different environmental conditions for optimal growth. For example, optimal conditions for Oyster mushrooms fall between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit, while shiitake mushrooms flourish in cooler environments of 55 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit. High humidity is also important for most mushrooms, with levels around 90% being ideal. However, some mushrooms, such as the button mushroom, require light to initiate fruiting.

The art of cultivating mushrooms demands a keen eye for detail and a delicate touch to foster a bountiful and thriving crop. By carefully regulating environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and lighting, cultivators can create the ideal growing conditions for different mushroom species. Monitoring these factors is crucial to producing a successful crop. Commercial growers often use specialized equipment and techniques to maintain precise control over these factors.

Factors Affecting Mushroom Growth: Contamination, Nutrient Availability, and Airflow

Mushroom growth is a delicate process that depends on several factors. Contamination, nutrient availability, and airflow are critical factors that can affect the growth of mushrooms.



Contamination is a common issue that can arise if proper sterilization measures are not taken with the substrate or environment, which can result in the proliferation of undesired bacteria or fungi. This can compete with the mycelium for nutrients, slowing down growth or causing contamination of the fruiting body.

Nutrient Availability

Nutrient availability is another important factor affecting mushroom growth. Varieties of mushrooms necessitate distinct substrates for their thriving, and it is crucial to furnish the appropriate substrate to foster their optimal growth. The substrate must be enriched with essential nutrients, encompassing nitrogen, carbon, and trace elements, to provide a nurturing environment for the mycelium, enabling it to flourish and yield a bountiful fruiting body.


Airflow is also a crucial factor in mushroom growth. Good airflow helps to regulate temperature and humidity, preventing the buildup of harmful gases and ensuring the proper exchange of gases. Inadequate airflow can result in stagnant air, exacerbating humidity levels, diminishing oxygen supply, and heightening the risk of contamination.

Temperature, Humidity, and Lighting

Apart from these critical factors, temperature, humidity, and lighting are also essential factors affecting mushroom growth. Temperature influences the rate of mycelial growth and the timing of the fruiting process. The ideal temperature range for most mushrooms is between 55 and 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Maintaining elevated humidity levels is fundamental to elicit appropriate fruiting, and lighting can act as a catalyst in inciting the process of fruiting.

Harvesting and Storage of Mushrooms

Harvesting at the right time ensures optimal quality and increased crop yield. Determining the right time to harvest will significantly impact your success rate and produce high-quality yields that you can boast about. The fruiting body should be harvested when it is fully mature and just before the cap begins to open. This can be determined by gently pressing the cap and checking for firmness.


To harvest the mushrooms, gently twist and pull the stem at the base of the mushroom. It's important to avoid damaging the mycelium and substrate during harvesting, as this can affect future growth.

After harvesting, it is imperative to store the prized mushrooms meticulously, safeguarding their unrivaled freshness and unparalleled quality. Mushrooms are highly perishable and can deteriorate quickly if not stored correctly. For optimal storage, it's recommended to keep mushrooms in a dark and cool location, preferably the refrigerator. To promote airflow and inhibit any unwanted dampness, consider placing them in a paper bag or wrapping them up with a paper towel.

To savor the best taste possible, aim to consume your mushrooms as soon as you can after picking. If that isn't feasible for your needs, drying or preserving them in oil or vinegar is an alternative option to lengthen their lifespan.

Conclusion: Understanding and Managing Environmental Conditions

Mushrooms are fascinating organisms with a complex growth process that requires careful attention to detail. Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the various stages of mushroom growth, along with the factors that exert their influence on development, holds paramount importance in fostering robust and fruitful crops.

Mushrooms require specific environmental conditions, including proper nutrients, humidity, temperature, and light, to grow. Commercial growers often use specialized equipment and techniques to maintain precise control over these factors, ensuring optimal growth and a consistent crop.

While mushroom cultivation can be a delicate process, it is also incredibly rewarding, providing a unique and delicious addition to any diet.

Get Started on Your Mushroom Growing Journey with FunGuy Grow Supply! Shop Now for Top Quality Mushroom Grow Bags, Kits, and Spawn.